Principles of Forward Rate Agreement

Forward Rate Agreement: Principles and Key Considerations

A Forward Rate Agreement (FRA) is a financial agreement between two parties to exchange a fixed interest rate for a predetermined interest rate at a future date. It is an over-the-counter contract typically used to hedge against interest rate risk. In this article, we will discuss the principles of FRA and the key considerations that should be taken into account when entering into an FRA.

Principles of FRA

1. Parties involved: A FRA involves two parties – the buyer and the seller. The buyer agrees to pay a fixed interest rate to the seller at a future date, while the seller agrees to pay a predetermined interest rate based on a reference rate, such as LIBOR.

2. Agreement Period: The agreement period or the tenor of the FRA can range from a month to several years. The length of the FRA depends on the needs of the parties involved.

3. Reference rate: The reference rate used in an FRA is typically a benchmark interest rate, such as LIBOR. The parties involved agree on a reference rate at the start of the agreement, and the predetermined interest rate is calculated based on this rate.

4. Settlement: The settlement of a FRA is typically cash-based, and no physical exchange of assets takes place. The settlement amount is calculated based on the difference between the fixed interest rate and the predetermined interest rate.

Key Considerations for FRA

1. Counterparty risk: The FRA is an over-the-counter contract, which means that the parties involved are exposed to counterparty risk. This risk arises when one party fails to fulfill their obligations under the contract. To minimize this risk, parties should only enter into FRA contracts with reputable and creditworthy counterparties.

2. Market risk: The value of the FRA is affected by changes in interest rates. If interest rates move in favor of one party, the other party may face a loss. Parties should consider their exposure to market risk and should hedge their positions accordingly.

3. Documentation: The terms of the FRA should be clearly documented in a written contract. The contract should specify the reference rate, the agreement period, the settlement amount, and any other important terms.

4. Pricing: The pricing of a FRA depends on several factors, including the reference rate, the tenor, and the prevailing market conditions. Parties should carefully consider the pricing of the FRA and ensure that it is fair and reasonable.


An FRA is a useful financial instrument for hedging against interest rate risk. The principles of FRA are straightforward, but parties should carefully consider the key considerations before entering into a contract. As with any financial instrument, parties should only enter into FRA contracts with reputable and creditworthy counterparties, and should take steps to minimize counterparty and market risk.